10 step ethical decision making model in counseling

Participants sign each sheet they dot and may add brief comments.

Consensus decision-making

Channeling decisions away from an inclusive group process: They have been found useful in facilitating groups of 6 to people.

Unanimity is achieved when the full group apparently consents to a decision. Conflicts are resolved by consensually agreed on arbitrators who are defined early in the negotiation process. Corrected minutes are then brought back onto the floor of the meeting at a later date.

Next by b Nicholas Cusanus in A group member can use a green card during discussion to add to the speakers list. Delegating the unresolved topic to a committee that includes representatives of the differing viewpoints so that the differences can be resolved without absorbing too much time in a whole group meeting.

Special fall-back methods have been developed that reduce this incentive. And finally by f Peter Emerson in Over the last three centuries they have evolved a number of practices peculiar to their aims. Process Point — forming a triangle with your hands or hands and arms to indicate that you have an important concern with the meeting or decision-making process.

A slightly more detailed variation on the thumbs proposal can be used to indicate a 5-point range: The cards have different meanings, depending on the phase in which they are used.

Since consensus decision-making focuses on discussion and seeks the input of all participants, it can be a time-consuming process.

Consensus decision-making is susceptible to all forms of groupthinkthe most dramatic being the Abilene paradox. Nonetheless, there is a widely adopted core set of hand signals. Using a super-majority decision-rule when an issue is brought back to the whole group after seasoning or discussion in a committee.

All suggested small corrections are incorporated either on the spot by the caucusing clerks, or at a special impromptu meeting after the current business session ends. Some decision-making bodies use a modified version of the colored card system with additional colors, such as orange to indicate a non-blocking reservation stronger than a stand-aside.

Lijphart reaches the same conclusion about majority rule, noting that majority rule encourages coalition-building. They are particularly useful when the group is multi-lingual. Facilitators accept responsibility for moving through the agenda on time; ensuring the group adheres to the mutually agreed-upon mechanics of the consensus process; and, if necessary, suggesting alternate or additional discussion or decision-making techniques, such as go-arounds, break-out groups or role-playing.

Clarifying Question — using your hand to form a "C" shape to indicate that you have a clarifying question, often this hand sign means that a person is invited to ask their question before a vote is taken. The clerk often recognizes who speaks first, then second, then third.

A typical yearly meeting session has a presiding clerk, one or two recording clerks and a reading clerk on stage. Shared facilitation is often adopted to diffuse the perceived power of the facilitator and create a system whereby a co-facilitator can pass off facilitation duties if he or she becomes more personally engaged in a debate.

Core Competency Model

November Non-verbal techniques[ edit ] Non-verbal means of expression can also reduce contention or keep issues from spreading out in time across an entire meeting.

When group members view the status quo as unjustly difficult to change through a whole group process, they may begin to delegate decision-making to smaller committees or to an executive committee. The result of this reduced commitment, according to many consensus proponents, is potentially less willingness to defend or act upon the decision.

Majority voting cannot measure consensus. Additionally, the time commitment required to engage in the consensus decision-making process can sometimes act as a barrier to participation for individuals unable or unwilling to make the commitment.

We used an index finger for the former and a full hand for the latter.

Some formal models based on graph theory attempt to explore the implications of suppressed dissent and subsequent sabotage of the group as it takes action.Adaptability Flexible and works well in a variety of situations, and with various individuals and groups.

Open to different and new ways of doing things; willing to modify one’s preferences and priorities. Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

Consensus may be defined professionally as an acceptable resolution, one that can be supported, even if not the "favourite" of each individual.

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10 step ethical decision making model in counseling
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