Discuss trends or functional relationships that can be seen in the results from figures, tables, graphs, etc. Conclusion In conclusion, this experiment found the molar concentration of acetic acid in vinegar to be 0. Discuss the possible causes chemical or otherwise that explain your results.
The percentage uncertainty calculated of the concentration of NaOH was 2. Therefore, due to flaws in raw data values taken from systematic errors, there has been a deviation in uncertainty too, indicating the impact of methodical flaws.
In the case of a strong acid reacting with a strong base, the reaction proceeds stoichiometrically with the strong base reacting completely with the strong acid to produce water and salt. Thus, the final answer did not match the theoretical value accurately because the strength was weakened, meaning that the numbers used to calculate the molar concentration were not as accurate.
The resulting percentage error out of this deviation is: Thus, there are no buffer regions before the equivalence point.
Data include observations in addition to numerical measurements. What do your results mean?
The first titration was the lightest in Titration lab discussion of the three titrations and the second titration was the darkest. Do your results make sense with respect to the theory?
When you are writing the Discussion section, consider including the following 3 points: This flaw was due to allowing excess sodium hydroxide to flow, causing the KHP solution to become pinker than it should have.
Data analysis includes reasoning and formulating conclusions that are based on descriptive or qualitative data as well as numerical computations based on quantitative data. However, this, being only 0.
Follow that up with a numerical example and the values for all of the other trials. This means that due to systematic error, my accuracy has fallen by 9.
The lab manual may dictate where it should appear. Data tables are always a good idea! This error can be reduced by always ensuring that readings are always made at eye level and that the same person taking the readings is constant as judgment varies with each person.
The reason we were able to add water to the flask without measuring it while we were titrating was that the number of moles of HCl does not change when dilution happens. The data section must be organized and consistent with any format suggested in the laboratory manual.
The difference between these sets of data indicates that the systematic error of allowing the KHP solution to become too pale resulted in strange fluctuations.
Overall, the data obtained, although not completely inaccurate, have not been as accurate as it could have been. Or "Why does a certain step work?
This value includes the both uncertainties regarding those that applied when the solutions were made eg. Taking the value of 9. The uncertainty of 2. In order to prevent this error from affecting the results of the experiment, one should attempt to keep the sodium and sodium hydroxide in an enclosed environment at all times, thus limiting the time it has to interact with the atmosphere.
One major factor that affected the result of this experiment was to strength of the sodium and sodium hydroxide. Also, limiting the transfer of solution from one container to another will also reduce the amount of error.
This indicates that at the equivalence point of this titration, only neutral species exist in solution. In other words, ask and answer this question for each step in the procedure: This will help your TA give you partial credit if you have errors.
If it does not, the Data Analysis section is a good place to put it. For example, it is 2. These fluctuations caused the 0. Another error was caused by the deviation in the mass of KHP.
These errors were avoidable. Also, at each point before the equivalence point, only strong acid, water, and the immeasurably weak conjugate base of the strong acid are present. When data analysis involves quantitative processes, a sample calculation must be shown for each computation or each step in a series of computations.Like any titration, neutralization titrations depend on a chemical reaction between the unknown solution and a standard reagent.
The point of chemical equivalence is indicated by a chemical indicator or an instrumental measurement. When the color chang 3/5(2).
Discussion exp 1 1. Discussion:Titration is a technique for determining either the concentration of a solution of unknownmolarity or the number of moles of a substance in a given sample. Experiment 1 Acid-Base Titrations Discussion is fundamental to these methods, and the exercise serves as an introduction to the techniques of solution preparation and titration.
potassium hydrogen phthalate can be returned to the containers at the back of the lab. Lab Report: Titration Lab Prepare a solution of a given concentration; understand titration including acid-base reactions, pH, stoichiometry and molar equivalence. Chemicals and equipment: NaOH pellets close to purity, HCl 3M, phenolphtalein Beckers, flasks, burette, magnetic or manual stir pHmeter Waste management: The waste disposal will be handled through neutralization of your excess.
TITRATION OF ACIDS AND BASES Reminder – Goggles must be worn at all times in the lab! PRE-LAB DISCUSSION: In the chemistry laboratory, it is sometimes necessary to experimentally determine the. Titration Lab: NaOH with Standardized Aim To standardize a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution against a primary standard acid [Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP)] using .Download